• "1st:The pupil of the eye contracts, in proportion to the increase of light which is reflected in it. 

  • 2nd. The pupil of the eye expands in proportion to the diminution in the day light, or any other light, that is reflected in it.

  •  3rd. The subject of this third proposition we find fully discussed in...The eye perceives and recognizes the objects of its vision with greater intensity in proportion as the pupil is more widely dilated; and this can be proved by the case of nocturnal animals, such as cats, and certain birds--as the owl and others--in which the pupil varies in a high degree from large to smal, when in the dark or in the light. 

  • 4th. The eye [out of doors] in an illuminated atmosphere sees darkness behind the windows of houses which [nevertheless] are light. 

  • 5th. All colours when placed in the shade appear of an equal degree of darkness, among themselves.

  •  6th. But all colours when placed in a full light, never vary from their true and essential hue."

"When the eye, coming out of darkness suddenly sees a luminous body, it will appear much larger at first sight than after long looking at it. The illuminated object will look larger and more brilliant, when seen with two eyes than with only one. A luminous object will appear smaller in size, when the eye sees it through a smaller opening. A luminous body of an oval form will appear rounder in proportion as it is farther from the eye."

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